[A] closer look at the history of the Fed-bank relationship shows that the value of these dividends is greater — and more complicated — than just the dollar amount. These payments are part of a long-running story: the Fed’s challenge, over time, to encourage banks to join and stay in the Federal Reserve System to reduce the risk of what is now known as ‘shadow banking.’
The dividend was historically set at 6% to reflect the 3% of capital that member banks were required to pay for Fed bank stock, plus the 3% of capital held “on call” for use by the Fed. In 2015, Congress reduced it to the current 10-year Treasury rate for banks with more than $10 billion in assets.
There is no modern example to shed light on what might happen if banks decide Fed membership is no longer worth it. Nor is it clear what the consequences -- intended as well as unintended -- may be if member banks start leaving the System in substantial numbers.